New publication: The Political Opportunity Structure of Chinese Villages: A Case Study of Rightful Resistance in Northwest China

Together with Dr. Guo Pengpeng and Prof. Dr. Han Guoming, both long-term cooperation partners at the School of Management, Lanzhou University in Gansu Province, René Trappel published an article in the latest issue of Asian Perspective (45, 3, Summer 2021) on political opportunity structures and “rightful resistance” in rural China. 

For more information see https://muse.jhu.edu/article/800603.

New publication: “Negotiating Agrarian Futures in China”

The special feature “Negotiating Agrarian Futures in China” under the guest editorship of Karita Kan, Hong Kong Polytechnic University and René Trappel, University of Freiburg, has been published in the latest issue of China Perspectives (2021/2). The feature also includes an article by René Trappel on state-led agrarian change in Gansu Province (“From Peasant to Elite: Reshaping Agriculture in Gansu Province”), which is provided in open access. 

New publication: Global city competition and new hierarchies of urban citizenship in China’s migration regime

Elena Meyer-Clement and Xiang Wang published a new chapter titled “Global city competition and new hierarchies of urban citizenship in China’s migration regime” in the book Immigration Governance in East Asia: Norm Diffusion, Politics of Identity, Citizenship. The book is edited by Gunter Schubert, Franziska Plümmer and Anastasiya Bayok. It analyzes immigration policies in contemporary East Asia and it is included in the Routledge Series on Asian Migration.

The chapter discusses China’s evolving approach to governing migration in its cities under the conditions of national and global city competition. It investigates how China’s central and local governments steer who becomes an urban citizen and whether there are signs of an integrated approach of governing immigration and internal migration. The analysis shows that on the national level, there is high alignment among recent immigration policies with the rationales of internal migration policies. There is a two-pronged approach in both policy areas: attracting skilled and educated foreigners and migrants on the one hand, and strengthening the governance of unwanted individuals on the other. The chapter presents two cases studies of Shanghai and Yiwu. The analysis shows that the existing hierarchical order of exclusion and inclusion in China’s local citizenship regimes has been reinforced by the diffusion of global norms of urban restructuring and city competition. Meanwhile, the differences between the two cases reveal that China’s central–local relations and the administrative rank of Chinese cities are important factors for understanding how global norms of capital restructuring and city rescaling affect China’s urban migration regimes.

New special issue on China’s rural urbanization

A new special issue, co-edited by Elena Meyer-Clement and Jesper Willaing Zeuthen, with contributions from the first workshop of the “Modernizing Rural China” network has been published in China Information, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020.

Meyer-Clement, E., & Zeuthen, J. W. (2020). China’s rural urbanization and the state: Putting the countryside first? China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X20923240

Yep, R. (2019). Local alliances in rural urbanization: Land transfer in contemporary China. China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X19865978

Meyer-Clement, E. (2019). Rural urbanization under Xi Jinping: From rapid community building to steady urbanization? China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X19875931

Zeuthen, J. W. (2020). Rescaling China’s rural–urban frontier: Exception as norm in the access to development. China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X20920817

Wilczak, J. (2020). Leveraging land values for rural development in China after the Sichuan earthquake. China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X20928903

Wang, D., & Christiansen, F. (2019). The pursuit of new citizenship by peri-urban residents in China: Status, rights, and individual choice. China Information. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X19835455

Pils, E. (2020). From authoritarian development to totalist urban reordering: The Daxing forced evictions case. China Information, 34(2), 270–290. https://doi.org/10.1177/0920203X20929590

New publication: Permits, Points, and Permanent Household Registration: Recalibrating Hukou Policy under “Top-Level Design

Xiang Wang has published a new article with SAGE Publishing and Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, titled “Permits, Points, and Permanent Household Registration: Recalibrating Hukou Policy under “Top-Level Design””.

China’s New-type Urbanisation Plan heralded a new phase of reform of the household registration (hukou) system and initiated a nation-wide reconfiguration of hukou policy in Chinese cities. This study reveals that the former localisation of hukou policymaking has been brought to greater uniformity under the current central guidelines. The liberalisation of hukou conversion has been expanded to many large cities that previously employed selective migrant integration policies. Mega-cities have recalibrated the selection criteria for new citizens, elevating the importance of settlement duration and moderating the importance of educational and professional qualifications. Case studies in Guangdong further reveal the dynamic interactions among different levels of government in the course of reform. Local policy experimentations set important precedents for central policymaking, and the central guidelines are enforcing new adjustments in local implementation. The provincial government plays a prominent role in coordinating top-down directives and local conditions.

The OnlineFirst version of the full article is available here.

Project meeting January 2020

A project meeting was held at Freie Universität Berlin on January 17, 2020. All three members of the DFG research project team, Elena Meyer-Clement, René Trappel and Xiang Wang attended the meeting.

In the morning, Xiang Wang presented the preliminary findings from her four-month fieldwork about the redevelopment of urban villages (chengzhongcun) in Guangzhou. Prof. Bettina Gransow from the Chinese Studies department and Kimiko Suda, a recent PhD graduate, also joined the presentation and the discussion session thereafter.

In the afternoon, Elena presented her fieldwork findings in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Afterwards, the project team shared their latest publications and upcoming plans for fieldwork, conferences and publications.

Visit to Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Guangzhou

In October, Elena Meyer-Clement met with researchers at Nanjing Agricultural University, Fudan University (Shanghai) and Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou) to discuss first findings of the project and talk about possible future research collaboration.

Here are reports on her lectures at Nanjing Agricultural University and at Sun Yat-sen University (in Chinese).

She also participated in field trips with Prof SONG Yu (Xi’an Jiaotong – Liverpool University) to model villages and an urbanizing town in the region of the prefectural city Huzhou, Zhejiang Province.

A “beautiful village” in Zhejiang Province

A residential community in an urbanizing town close to the prefectural city of Huzhou, Zhejiang Province

(Photo credits: Elena Meyer-Clement)

 

Second Workshop of the “Modernizing Rural China” research network took place in Freiburg

Scholars from Europe, North America, and Asia convened at Studienhaus Wiesneck near Freiburg to discuss land use, agrarian change, urbanization and state-society relations in a modernizing Chinese countryside. This years workshop, organized by René Trappel, Elena Meyer-Clement, and Jesper Zeuthen, consisted of paper presentations and a final steering discussion to organize future work and plan upcoming events.

Participants included John Donaldson (Singapore Management University), Burak Gürel (Koç University), Christopher Heurlin (Bowdoin College), Karita Kan (Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Kyonghee Lee (University of Heidelberg), Kristen Looney (Georgetown University), Elena Meyer-Clement (Freie Universität Berlin), René Trappel (University of Freiburg), and Jesper Willaing Zeuthen (Aalborg University).

Photo credit: Daniel Kroth

A report on the workshop is forthcoming in ASIEN – The German Journal on Contemporary Asia.

The next workshop will take place in February of 2021.

A Ninth Juxtaposition: American Indians in an Urbanizing Tibet

Student post: In our blog series we occasionally present exceptional work of our students on China’s urban-rural integration to a wider audience. This is a post by Daniel Kroth, student at Michigan State University currently on a year abroad at Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg supported by the DAAD. The post started as a paper for the MA course “The Next Great Transformation”. The opinions expressed in this blog post belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the research project.

by Daniel Kroth

Through “quirky but revealing” juxtapositions, University of California Irvine professor Jeffry Wasserstrom demonstrates the value of using inexact comparison to interrogate long held assumptions about China and Chinese history. These openly imperfect juxtapositions cultivate “fresh thinking,” and bear as much utility in their well-discussed insufficiencies as in their perceptive analogies. In this post, I will apply this analytical lens to the discourse surrounding a fascinating challenge facing Chinese policymakers in their efforts of “rural revitalization”: bicultural education in Tibet.

The difficulties of effectively educating a culturally and linguistically distinct population through the seismic changes of urbanization and modernization are formidable. They may not be, however, unique to China. Many other states have tackled this challenge with a range of policies to varying degrees of success. The United States, with its nearly six million American Indians speaking 170 distinct languages, may provide an interesting foil to Chinese bicultural education policies. Though some Tibetans and American Indians themselves identify their cultural and historical similarity, outside comparisons between Tibetans and American Indians often end in acrimonious and unproductive discussions of American and Chinese imperial legacies.A more targeted comparison of specific policies and structural realities affecting these culturally and linguistically distinct, synthetically urbanized (or urbanizing) populations may provide fertile ground for Wasserstrom’s approach. Here, I write a “ninth juxtaposition” using this method as an analytical inroad to education in an urbanizing Tibet.

In educating these populations, American and Chinese policymakers face two similar obstacles: 1) The logistical and infrastructural challenges of providing education in typically less developed areas, and 2) The political challenges of preserving cultural identity while providing a basis for modernization and prosperity in the context of a globalizing economy.

The Badlands on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Low population density and extreme weather in the American Great Plains and on the Tibetan Plateau can complicate education efforts and transportation schemes. Photo by D. Luchsinger of the National Parks Service

Spaces for Education

Low population density, limited transportation infrastructure, and a lack of suitable educational facilities pose significant challenges to both American Indian and Tibetan students, and to the American and Chinese policymakers serving them.

American Indian and Tibetan students often find themselves in undesirable facilities for different reasons. China has been aggressively building new schools in Tibet since 1999. Though the economic realities of constructing schools to serve low population density areas resulted in substandard facilities early on in some locations, Tibetan school facilities today are generally well funded and well maintained. These schools are, however, often devoid of the cultural symbolism found in Tibetan-run schools. In Tibet it seems, complaints regarding facilities stem more from this cultural sterility than from infrastructural quality.  In the United States, particularly in the Great Plains, insufficient funding and maintenance has resulted in run-down schools with outdated classroom technology in many cases. Many American Indian schools still have dial up internet, for example. In either case, students face an uphill battle when competing with their national-majority peers. Subpar facilities can negatively impact both student and teacher performance. Perhaps more importantly though, the disparity between rundown or inferior Bureau of Indian Education schools and other “majority” schools in the U.S and a lack of Tibetan cultural presence in Tibetan schools can reinforce a perception that these culturally distinct students are not equally valued. This can create tension between local communities and the central/federal governments operating their schools. This disparity can also undercut students’, parents’ and teachers’ sense of agency, ownership, and pride in their educational process, limiting participation and cooperation.

The condition of schools and the issue of school transportation are closely related. Budgetary issues that lead to subpar facilities often affect transportation similarly, and transportation difficulties are further stressed by students traveling farther to avoid these insufficient facilities. In the American Great Plains, many Native students travel great distances to avoid critically outdated or underfunded schools. Some American Indian students, for example, drive upwards of 300 miles (482 kilometers) per day to attend more suitable schools. In Tibet, altitude, remoteness, school consolidation projects and limited transportation infrastructure exacerbate the difficulty of travel and create a perception of danger. This perception, not entirely without substance, is expressed in a case study of locally operated schools by one mother of four children she declined to send to a locally run rural school in Kurti Ribo:

“I was very worried that my children might get attacked by stray dogs and wolves on their way to school. I was also very worried they might drown in the big rivers nearby.” 

In both cases, travel to schools is more than a question of convenience. Long commutes to suitable schools, sometimes as a result of school consolidation policies, can impose undue burdens on students and parents who provide their own transportation, incur operational costs in programs where transportation is provided, and undercut a sense of regional identity and agency over schooling. All of these negatively impact student performance. Urbanization and the facilitation of locally operated schools could ameliorate these difficulties.

As noted above, this comparison is not a perfect one. American Indian and Tibetan communities find different issues with their school facilities or commutes to them, and the American and Chinese national governments have pursued different strategies to improve the spaces for education and travel to them. Despite this, both situations have been insufficiently ameliorated or even directly exacerbated by government policy or execution of policy.

The United States funds all public schooling at the state level through property taxes – except for American Indian schools, which are funded federally and typically operated by the Bureau of Indian Education, or BIE. Attempts to address facilities and transportation issues often come in the form of increasing funding to schools themselves to remodel facilities, and purchase and operate busses. This policy is widely viewed as ineffective, and partly as a result, 93% of American Indian students travel to attend state public or charter schools not run by the BIE. American Indian education leaders often criticize the BIE for its inexperience in operating schools, and for being out of touch with student needs. Policy changes on this front come slowly, but increasingly trend towards turning school operations over to Native entities with federal funding.

In Tibet, an increasing reliance on development projects and a state-led development drive lead to a rapid (and perhaps artificial) concentration of the population. While this may provide better access to social services, it often appears to be at the cost of losing traditional ways of life. The project-based economy often involves the undertaking of projects for the sake of personal career advancement or to take advantage of temporarily available funding.

This frequently incentivizes the adoption of policies which do not align with the needs of students. For example, school consolidation (chedian bingxiao), aims to focus resources by closing some rural facilities. The aforementioned school in Kurti Ribo was slated for closure and consolidation as part of a school consolidation project. Though the project would have been beneficial for local officials, the considerably longer (ten kilometer) walks to school and a loss of local agency over schooling this project would have entailed sparked local resistance. In an unusual result, this ultimately prevented the consolidation.

The Challenges of Bicultural Education

In addition to these logistical and infrastructural difficulties, policymakers, educators, and students face societal challenges inherent to bicultural education. Many of these challenges result from a perception of diametric opposition of cultural heritage and workplace readiness. Of particular concern are the issues of language preservation, culture in the curriculum, and agency over schooling, all of which can significantly impact educational outcomes.

Any discussion of the use of Tibetan or American Indian Languages in the classroom must recognize significant differences between them. Tibetan has a much broader speakership, and is still in use as a cultural lingua franca for a large, contiguous region. American Indian languages, of which there are many, are spoken by smaller communities and are often used in a more limited role. In both cases however, the student populations in question feel a cultural attachment to non-majority languages. This poses two key challenges. First, and in both cases, availability of teachers and educational materials in these languages can be limited. Second, there exist, particularly in China, questions about their economic usefulness to students given the prevalence of English and Mandarin on a global scale.

A letter sent in 2018 by Tibetan students in Qinghai asks that more bilingual teachers be hired.

A letter sent in 2018 by Tibetan students in Qinghai asks that more bilingual teachers be hired.

This concern about economic competitiveness is sometimes posed against the value of language as a facet of culture. Frequently, courses for younger Tibetan students are taught in Tibetan, while STEM courses in secondary education are often taught in Mandarin. Many Tibetans are not native speakers of Mandarin. This can create additional difficulty, in that the use of Tibetan serves both a cultural and practical function. As schools have pivoted towards greater ratios of Mandarin language instruction, students and parents have expressed concern for their cultural autonomy. Both groups have identified increased local involvement in education as a desirable method for simultaneously maintaining cultural autonomy and preparing students for success in broader society. As Anhiwake Rose, Executive Director of the National Indian Education Association notes in a related opinion, this involvement not only necessitates local individuals as educators, but also local culture in the curriculum.

“Unless educators make sure Native cultures are included in school culture, and Native history is taught in the classroom, Native students won’t do as well as they could either academically or socially.”

This desire for involvement, representation, and agency, and the perception of the school as a projection of state or ethnic majority power also colors both situations. U.S. American Indian education policy before 1938 involved forced assimilation and the deliberate destruction of Native culture in boarding schools. The “Kill the Indian, save the man” mantra of “modernizing” people themselves, rather than systems, left an indelible mark on American Indian’s views of state run education. In many cases, the failure of education to deliver on the promise of social mobility has further undermined the perceived value of federal educational systems. These cultural memories undergird a distrust of federal educational schemes, and contributes to the perception of the school as a cultural proxy for the state.

In Tibet, similar questions about the cultural and political role of the school have arisen. State-led education efforts often include the goal of “modernizing” the Tibetans themselves, though emphasis on Mandarin language ability, limiting religious expression, and overt as well as indirect insistence on changes in traditional ways of life. The state and the Tibetans often view such efforts differently, with the state insisting that such changes prepare Tibetans to succeed in a modern world, and with Tibetans viewing them as a threat to their cultural autonomy. Though American Indian wariness is largely due to past abuses and Tibetan wariness is largely due to a fear of state-facilitated cultural change, both groups have expressed a similar concern for cultural and linguistic autonomy, and have insisted that students are better served when Tibetans or American Indians have a hand in educational processes.

A comparison on logistical and cultural fronts highlights the similar demands of students and their advocates, and showcases differing reactions to these demands. A more thorough exploration of such a juxtaposition could provide a better understanding of both situations, and could provide additional context for Tibet’s rural transformation. ·

Questions may be directed to krothdan@msu.edu.