Herzlich Willkommen im Blog der Forschungswerkstatt „Japanische Küche in Berlin“!
Der Trailer stellt das Konzept des Projekts vor, das im Sommersemester 2016 erstmals an der Japanologie der FU-Berlin durchgeführt wurde.
Meine Fahrrad-Route vom Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften/Japanologie der Universität Wien bis nach Hause führt mich täglich an zahlreichen Belegen für die Popularität, die Vielfältigkeit und die Hybridität japanischer Esskultur in Wien vorbei. Ramen-Bars mit teilweise verwirrender Auswahl an Nudelsuppen „asiatischer Art“, japanische Fine-Dining-Restaurants und die Wiener Interpretation eines Izakaya – samt hölzernen Menütafeln an den Wänden – säumen den Weg: eine ideale Spielwiese für japanologische Feldforschung vor Ort! Dieser Gedanke kam mir zwar oft auf dem Rad, er stammt aber natürlich nicht von mir, wie nicht zuletzt dieser Blog belegt: In Berlin nutzt Cornelia Reiher japanische Esskultur bereits seit Jahren für studentische Forschungsprojekte und die Vermittlung von Methoden. Angelehnt an dieses Projekt haben die Studierenden des Wiener „Proseminars 2“ (ein BA-Kurs mit Schwerpunkt auf die Vermittlung von wissenschaftlichen Methoden in der Japanologie) nun im abgelaufenen Sommersemester die Vielfalt der japanischen „Foodscape“ in Wien untersucht, um anhand dieses Themas erste Forschungserfahrungen zu sammeln.
Während ich diesen Beitrag schreibe, feilen die Studierenden alleine oder in Zweier-Teams vermutlich (hoffentlich!) an ihren bald fälligen Seminararbeiten. In Mittelpunkt des Proseminars stand eine erste Heranführung an qualitative Forschungsmethoden – besonders Interviews und (teilnehmende) Beobachtung. Die Themen mussten die Studierenden dabei selber bestimmen. Viele Projektideen kreisen um den Themenkomplex „Authentizität“ und die Hybridisierung von japanischer Esskultur im Wiener Kontext. Wie werden zum Beispiel „Regionalität“ und „Saisonalität“ in japanischen Kaiseki-Restaurants in Wien umgesetzt? Wie passt das Angebot von veganen Alternativen mit dem Anspruch von „authentischen“ Ramen zusammen? Passend zu diesem Schwerpunkt hatten wir die Auseinandersetzung mit der japanischen Foodscape im Unterricht unter anderem in den Kontext der Forschungsliteratur zu „culinary mobilities“ gestellt. Im zweiten Teil des Kurses lag der Fokus dann auf der Praxis: Beobachtungsübung, Interview-Vorbereitung, Interview-Übung, Analyse. Einzeln oder in Zweierteams haben die sich Studierenden an ihre Forschungsinteressen herangetastet, passiv oder aktiv beobachtet, Interviewleitfäden erstellt und Pilotinterviews geführt. Natürlich wollten wir dabei auch wissen, was unsere Vorbilder in Berlin machen. Ende April haben Berliner und Wiener Studierende ihre Forschungsideen und erste Ergebnisse in einem Online-Workshop miteinander geteilt. Ihre Erfahrungsberichte kann man auf diesem Blog und hier nachlesen. Für die Zukunft schlummert in diesem Austausch sicher noch viel mehr Potential für eine vergleichende Perspektive auf japanische Foodscapes in Europa. Welche Elemente im „Glokalisierungsprozess“ japanischer Esskultur ähneln sich, wo und wie wirkt sich der spezifische lokale Kontext der zwei Metropolen aus? Während die unterschiedliche Zeiteinteilung des Studienjahres in Berlin und Wien ein Hindernis darstellte, bietet der Ausbau der digitalen Lern- und Forschungsinfrastruktur neue Möglichkeiten zur Vertiefung solcher Fragen. In Zeiten eingeschränkter Mobilität und einer immer schwereren Energie- und Klimakrise wird es ohnehin weiterhin wichtig sein, japanologische Forschung und Methodenlehre vor Ort (also nicht in Japan) zu gestalten, ohne dabei die Praxis aus den Augen zu verlieren. Japanische Foodscapes in Europa bilden für diese Herausforderung eine machbare und faszinierende Lösung.
Hanno Jentzsch ist Politikwissenschaftler und Universitätsassistent (postdoc) am Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften/Japanologie der Universität Wien. Er forscht zu den Themen ländliche Revitalisierung, local governance und Staat-Zivilgesellschaft-Beziehungen im ländlichen Japan sowie Landwirtschaftspolitik und soziale Wohlfahrt. Veröffentlichungen u.a. Harvesting State Support (University of Toronto Press, 2021) und Rethinking Locality in Japan (Routledge, 2021, mit Sonja Ganseforth).
While hopefully enjoying their semester break, participants of this course are currently working on their projects on various aspects of Berlin’s Japanese foodscapes. During the course, we did not only practice different methods of making and analyzing qualitative data, but students also created and planned their own research projects. Three teams work on projects about the labeling of Japanese food in Asia supermarkets and Japanese restaurants, the promotion of sake in Berlin’s izakaya and the impact of Japanese pop culture on the consumption of Japanese sweets in Berlin respectively.
The project team exploring the labeling of Japanese food in Asia supermarkets and Japanese restaurants focuses on the labeling of vegan food and ingredients. Students will compare different types of labels and the availability of vegan options in Asian supermarkets and Japanese restaurants in different parts of Berlin to find out how retailers and restaurateurs deal with the growing demand for vegan Japanese food and dishes in Berlin. This group will present their findings in a video that will contain footage from interviews and visits to restaurants and supermarkets.
Another team will investigate representations of and marketing strategies for sake in Berlin’s izakaya. The group has selected different izakaya with owners of different nationalities to interview to find out how they are promoting sake to their customers in Berlin. This also includes visits to izakaya to observe the drinking culture and atmosphere in these very popular places. The group plans to create a video to present their findings that will contain a general introduction to izakaya in Japan and Germany as well as footage from interviews and observation.
The third team will inquire how Japanese sweets are linked to Japanese popular culture. As shops selling manga and other pop culture from Japan increasingly offer sweets and snacks from Japan, students have selected shops to interview owners and managers about how they select and market the products they are selling and to talk to customers about why they buy these sweets. This team will create a flipbook comic with their own artwork to present their results. This is a new format, so please stay tuned to check out the videos and the flipbook comic on this blog in October.
Berlin is experiencing an unusually hot summer right now, but there are plenty of ways to cool off. One of them is refreshment at one of the capital’s Japanese cafes and eateries. In July, I took a friend, a food journalist from the U.S., on a little tour of Berlin’s Japanese food culture. We started with iced matcha latte and matcha tiramisu at a Japanese bakery in the afternoon. A group of Japanese customers enjoyed the lazy afternoon in the shaded plaza in front of the bakery. The store had also set up a tanabata decoration. The Tanabata festival celebrates the coming together of the deities Orihime and Hikoboshi, two lovers separated by the Milky Way, in July. In modern Japan, people generally celebrate Tanabata by writing wishes, sometimes in the form of poems, on small pieces of paper (tanzaku) and hanging them on bamboo. We were surprised by the multilingual tanzaku and touched because many of them expressed the wish for peace against the background of the war in Ukraine.
As we sat outside talking about how much Japanese restaurants in Berlin have changed over the past two decades, my friend told me how surprised she was at the wide selection of Japanese food now available in Japanese and Asian supermarkets. I took the cue and we visited a travel agency that now sells Japanese food, sweets, spices and sake. The Japanese staff enthusiastically introduced different types of sake and even shared recipes with us, telling us about their favorite foods and their way of cooking. This conversation about sake made us want a drink, and after passing several Japanese restaurants where customers were sitting outside enjoying a cold Japanese beer, we stopped at an izakaya and ordered drinks. The menu offered not only a wide selection of alcoholic beverages from Japan, but also cocktails and a haiku by Matsuo Bashō on each page. We ordered cocktails with yuzu and shiso leaves and enjoyed the creativity of fusion cuisine.
Looking for a place to eat dinner, we passed a number of Japanese restaurants that were closed for the summer vacations. But others were also closed due to lack of staff. Many of the Japanese restaurants rely on part-time staff who come to Germany on working holiday visas and often return to Japan in the summer, so summer was a difficult time even before the pandemic. But the Covid 19 pandemic made travel more difficult and added to restaurants‘ problems finding staff. But after a short walk, we found a Japanese restaurant that was open, and we were able to not only enjoy a delicious dinner, but also end our culinary expedition with cool azuki and matcha ice cream and goma purin.
The integration of online technology into the learning environment is an amazing opportunity for the exchange of information and to develop new and exciting ideas. As a part of our course “Research methods in Japan studies” we recently had the opportunity to meet with students from the University of Vienna via Zoom to discuss our projects.
During this informal meeting between students, everyone’s passion and creativity soon made us forget that we were in a digital meeting. This is why we often fell into a more natural rhythm of speaking without actively using features such as “raising hands” or other online tools. Therefore, we all were more dependent on verbal cues, which supported a positive atmosphere. Each of the four groups presented their project on Japanese food in Vienna and in Berlin. Detailed explanations and presentations enabled insights into how the students in Vienna are working on their interesting research topics. These include the marketing of Japanese products in Austria as well as the local representation of washoku in Vienna’s Japanese Foodscape. Other projects deal with anime and Japanese food and female management in Vienna and hierarchical structures in Japanese restaurants in Vienna. We, in turn, presented a project about Japanese sweets in Berlin and the effects Cool Japan might have had on their consumption.
After each presentation, we asked each other questions about the respective project. Some questions were concerned with research methods, sometimes we gave feedback or just talked about general ideas related to the projects. This was incredibly useful and introduced new angles from where to look at our research. Through this exchange, we were able to overcome our rather single-minded approach and perspectives that might have restricted our creative output and research. We also made great progress with our project because we had to summarize and visualize our general ideas as effectively as possible in order to present them during the meeting. When we prepared for the meeting we realized that some aspects of our project were too abstract and unclear for an audience unfamiliar with our topic, so we changed our research project quite a bit. Questions from the students from Vienna also made us think about certain aspects, especially practical issues and feasibility. Due to the valuable comments, all participants started to rethink certain aspects of their projects and look for ways to overcome the limitations and difficulties we identified during the discussion.
In summary, the feedback we received motivated us to move forward with our project. We were also very impressed by the Vienna students’ presentations and their unique topics and learned many new things. We would like to thank the students from the University of Vienna for their cooperation and the incredibly positive experience. We are looking forward to seeing the results of their work soon and to more collaborations!
Are you vegan and do you love Japanese ramen? Then you might wonder how you can get information about supreme ramen shops with regional ingredients in Berlin or Vienna. Japanese Studies students from Berlin and Vienna can help you out. On Thursday, June 23, 2022, four students from Vienna University and three students from Freie Universität Berlin met online for a student conference on regional and vegan Japanese food in Berlin and Vienna. And here are the results.
Maja Schachner and Vivien Überfellner presented their research on “authenticity and regionality in Viennese Ramen bars” (“Authentizität und Regionalität in Wiener Ramen-Bars“). They looked at interior design, staff, service, and menu in order to decipher ways to create authenticity in ramen bars. They also considered management and customer expectations using participant observation, expert interviews, and secondary literature. They discovered certain strategies to introduce vegan options as “inauthentic” while importing products from Japan was read as authentic.
Referring to kaiseki, a Japanese cuisine often featured in Japanese restaurants, David Wurz talked about the „significance of regionality for Japanese food in Vienna” (“Bedeutung von Regionalität für japanisches Essen in Wien“ ). Since regionality and seasonality play an important role in this type of Japanese cuisine, he was interested in how restaurants in Vienna met these standards. Using qualitative interviews with chefs and staff from restaurants, David was able to discover the frequent use of mushrooms and asparagus as seasonal products in Vienna’s Japanese restaurants.
Another take on customer experience took the group “Vegan ramen options in Vienna” („Vegane Ramenangebote in Wien“). Bridging the gap between authentic Japanese cuisine and demands for vegan alternatives is important for restaurateurs. Patrizia Stromberger found some insightful answers to this problem in the Viennese gastro scene. She used interviews with a mix of Austrian, Japanese and Chinese restaurant owners in order to analyze the influence of cultural background on adopting authentic or vegan options. Patrizia found out that one restaurant owner referred to taste as the relevant marker of authenticity. However inclusive this might seem, only Japanese customers’ taste seems to be relevant to authentic taste, thereby impeding the adaption of Japanese food to vegan customers.
We presented a Berlin perspective on how food labeling plays a role in promoting Japanese food in Asia food markets and Japanese restaurants in Berlin. Especially important for our project are the ways labels are presented on Japanese food products from Japan, products of Japanese food from outside Japan and Japanese food products produced in Germany. Furthermore, we want to find out about labeling practices in Japanese restaurants via doing semi-structured interviews with managers and analyzing menus.
In summary, all four groups found different ways of employing social scientific methods in order to find out more about regional, vegan or seasonal food presentation in Japanese-coded shops and restaurants in Vienna and Berlin. So, stay tuned for the results of our projects which are due in September.
by Ioanna Moka, Olha Tkachuk, Leonie Uhl and Richard Weber
On June 21st and 23rd respectively, we had the chance to present our research project to a group of students currently studying at the University of Vienna. They in turn also talked about their own projects. We are conducting a research project on Berlin’s izakaya culture (“Verweilen und Trinken auf Japanisch”, English: “Staying and Drinking the Japanese Way”) which involves fieldwork including semi-structured interviews and participant observation. During our meeting, we learned that the students from the University of Vienna were using similar research methods. Therefore, we were able to engage in a lively Zoom discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of certain methods.
It was exciting to learn how each project (“Excuse Me, Where Can I Find the Umami Spice?”, “Ramen in Vienna” and “The Response of Japanese Restaurants in Vienna to the COVID-19 crisis”) was conceptualized and where each student’s motivation stemmed from. In the first group meeting, one student told us about her group’s experience with on-the-spot, spontaneous interviews. While they picked people to interview randomly in the beginning, it became clear early on that without the interviewee having prior knowledge about the topic, interviewing them would require an extensive explanation from the students, which would not benefit the project.
In the second meeting, there were two female students researching restaurants’ strategies during the Covid-19 lockdown in Vienna. Their primary methodical approach was to inquire about the experiences of restaurant managers and ideally conduct interviews with them. Moreover, the students planned to talk with the employees and customers about their perspectives on how the owners or managers coped with this extraordinary situation. After sending many e-mails and visiting restaurants in person, their interview requests were not answered and/or denied indirectly with the excuse that the manager or owner was not present and they should come back the next day. The following day, the students went to the restaurant and once again, the manager was not there. As a possible solution, they decided to analyze the Covid situation in Vienna in general. However, an additional obstacle was the language barrier. Every digital message was written in German only, thus, writing e-mails in different languages (German, English, Japanese) could be a solution to avoid future misunderstandings.
Overall, the discussion pointed out each project’s strengths and weaknesses, but also helped to connect with students who study a similar topic across a distance. We felt as though we had known each other for a while, even though we met for the first time. This exchange has not only connected us as students but also showed that we were all experiencing the same difficulties, which was extremely reassuring. This shared understanding made this exchange much more valuable, and we are hoping for the chance to repeat exchanges like these in the future.
In May, our students interviewed students from Seikei University about their food habits. This was not only a valuable exercise in conducting interviews but also a valuable intercultural experience and an opportunity to connect with students from Japan.
We would like to thank Professor Kawamura and her students from Seikei University. Furthermore, we would like to thank Seikei University for promoting our Blog through their websites and Facebook pages.
After our online interview experience with students from Seikei University and an interview in the classroom, our group visited a Japanese restaurant to interview the manager and an employee who is one of the course participant’s friends. As he happens to work at Cocolo Rāmen in Kreuzberg he was so kind to agree to be interviewed and asked the manager to join in as well. We traveled to Kreuzberg together and when we arrived at Cocolo in the early afternoon, most of the customers ate outside enjoying the warm and sunny weather. After putting together two tables for our rather large group inside the restaurant, students started to ask the questions they had prepared.
Cocolo Rāmen in Kreuzberg belongs to the Kuchi group run by the famours Vietnamese restaurateur The Duc Ngo who owns several Asian and Japanese restaurants in Berlin and Frankfurt. Cocolo Kreuzberg opened in 2013 and moved to another location within Kreuzberg in 2019. The restaurant’s interior is cozy and rustic. Everything from the wooden tables and benches where we were seated to the bar is hand-crafted. Students’ questions covered the personal biographies of our interview partners as well as the restaurant’s menu, staff, guests and the Corona-19 pandemic. We learned that the manager, Mr. Sumida, had already lived in Germany for more than twenty years, while Mr. Kuwahara came to Berlin only three years ago. While Sumida san manages the restaurant and has worked there from the beginning, Kuwahara san mainly works in the kitchen and makes rāmen and other dishes.
While the restaurant is now mainly frequented by locals who live in the neighborhood, before the pandemic, Cocolo was also a popular destination for tourists. Not only the guests have changed due to the pandemic, but also the restaurant’s sales strategy. While Cocolo was closed during the first lockdown, they started takeout services during the second lockdown in November 2020. As in many other Japanese restaurants in Berlin, the menu changed to adjust dishes for takeout. They added more rice dishes like donburi to the menu, for example. Another pandemic-related problem is that Cocolo, like so many other restaurants, had and still has difficulties finding staff.
After the interview, we ordered rāmen and enjoyed the variety of different tastes. Sumida san and his team take pride in the handmade ingredients, including miso used for miso rāmen. All ingredients are fresh and no frozen ingredients are used. This is reflected in the great taste of all the dishes we tried. Some of the students ordered the vegan and vegetarian rāmen variations. While vegetarian rāmen was on the menu since the restaurant opened, vegan rāmen was just added a few years ago. Sumida san was so nice to treat us to appetizers including delicious gyōza, edamame, karaage and horensō gomaae. Gochisōsama deshita!!!
Compared to the other interviews we have conducted so far, doing the interview in our research participants’ workplace had many advantages, but we also dealt with new challenges today. One advantage was that we could ask questions about what we observed, including interior and staff. If we would not have visited the restaurant, we would not have seen the noodle machine and watched how rāmen noodles were cut and we could not have tasted the food ourselves. Through being in the restaurant, we were able to feel the atmosphere firsthand, watch staff at work and listen to the background music that included Japanese enka and pop songs. One disadvantage, however, was exactly this background music for recording the interview. However, it was a good experience of yet another and different interview situation and reminded us of the importance of taking notes. The most exciting thing of course was eating rāmen together after the interview. Thank you so much Sumida san and Kuwahara san for your time, for the hospitality and for treating us to the delicious appetizers!!!!
While group visits to restaurants were difficult last summer due to the Covid-19 pandemic, this year we were able to do our annual field trip to a Japanese restaurant again to practice participant observation. After an introduction to participant observation in the classroom, we traveled from campus to one of the many Japanese restaurants in Berlin to have lunch together. I asked students to observe interactions between staff and customers, work processes and division of labor in the restaurant and the interaction of the employees with each other, how Japaneseness is staged in the restaurant and what hygiene measures against Corona are still in place and how they are implemented by employees and guests.
When we entered the restaurant, we saw hand sanitizers and a perspex partition wall at the counter and waitresses wearing masks. However, since wearing masks is not mandatory in restaurants anymore, most of the guests did not wear masks when they entered the restaurant. In addition, self-services like hot water refills and soy sauce on restaurant tables were finally back. During the pandemic, the restaurant started a bustling take-out business and when we visited the restaurant, many people came in to pick up food. In addition, the restaurant recently began working with one of the many food delivery services in town, so delivery service employees would come in and out of the restaurant to pick up deliveries.
After a delicious lunch, students began to observe, wander around the restaurant and take notes and photographs. They also documented observations relevant to their individual research projects. The food labeling group took pictures of the menu and paid attention to the labeling of vegan and vegetarian dishes. The group working on Japanese sweets in Berlin ordered mochi and discovered a separate mochi menu. And the group working on Japanese alcohol and izakaya in Berlin checked the menu for alcoholic beverages offered at the restaurant.
The field trip was a great experience because students did not only practice observing and taking field notes but also had the chance to socialize with each other. Many courses at FUB had just moved back to onsite teaching this semester and some of the students did not have the chance to get to know their peers on campus and to meet outside of the university. I hope that this course will not only help students master qualitative research methods and put them into practice, but also create social and enjoyable experiences for them.
The special thing about the course „Methods and Research Techniques in Japanese Studies“ is that not only do we learn the theoretical basis of what types of research there are, but we also have the opportunity to try out the freshly gained knowledge in practice. One of the assignments we had recently was conducting an online interview with students from Seikei University. The theme was „Food Habits of Japanese People“.
During the week that we were preparing for the interview, we were constantly discussing the upcoming study with our groupmates. Even those who already had previous interview experience were a little bit nervous, but we were nevertheless excited about it. To prepare for the interview we have read a lot and learned what types of interviews exist. However, applying all of this knowledge immediately into practice was not so simple. Unexpected answers led to unexpected changes in the questions and of course, we had to improvise a bit. We would like to express our gratitude to the students from Seikei University: they were very patient, and friendly and explained all of their answers in great detail.
What’s interesting is that when we later exchanged impressions about our experiences within our study group we identified several similar experiences. First, even though we all prepared the questions separately, we asked pretty similar questions. For example, questions dealt with the Covid-19 pandemic, modern food trends among Japanese students or intergenerational tendencies. In addition, many students noted that some interesting topics were suggested by the interviewees themselves. And last but not least, we were all surprised that in terms of the Japanese language, everything seemed to go surprisingly smoothly (at least it seemed that way to us).
Among the other lessons, we have learned from our online interviews was the necessity to print out the prepared questions despite the temptation to have them solely on the screen. This may also help taking notes and to change questions on the spot. As for the note-taking itself, we have discovered that it did require some practice and, due to the absence of such for most of our group, it was quite challenging to simultaneously concentrate on both writing and actively listening to the interviewees. It was also tremendously helpful to learn that we always have to use several backup plans in case our communication or recording devices wouldn’t work or simply due to our internet connection being unstable. Fortunately – thanks to Professor Reiher – we talked about this prior to conducting our interviews, which prevents inconvenient situations.
On that note, we would like to thank first and foremost Professor Reiher from Freie Universität Berlin for bestowing us with such an opportunity and Professor Kawamura from Seikei University for connecting us with the students as well as the students themselves for helping us to gain experience in conducting the interviews in a very friendly atmosphere. We also cherished their reviews of our interviews: they motivated us to keep exploring interviews as a method full of opportunities. All in all, considering the growing popularity of online interviews, it was an extremely valuable experience that will surely be useful to us in the future.